Children, mainly infants, are especially vulnerable to pesticides, as a result of physiological factors which
facilitate absorption of chemicals and limit the ability to detoxify and eliminate them. Moreover,
children exhibit mouthing activity with pesticide contaminated objects.
Therefore, the rapid course of growth and development creates a time-frame of unique vulnerability,
where exposed children are prone to develop delayed neurotoxic brain disorders.
Parents, childcare workers and staff are generally untrained in using pesticides and may not follow
instructions or consider safer alternatives in efforts to provide a sanitary pest-free environment. A survey
of 3364 Illinois childcare centers was conducted to assess the direct and indirect impact of a formal
integrated pest management (IPM) ‘‘Train-the-Trainer’’ program implemented by a non-governmental
organization to childcare centers and supervisory agencies over a 3-year period. This survey determined
that the training increased the level of conﬁdence, positive attitudes (easy, controls pests, efﬁcient) and
implementation of IPM by childcare providers. Childcare staff was motivated primarily by how IPM
protects children’s health from exposure to pesticides, in which neurotoxic substances may play a major